Manufacturing Tolerances

Manufacturing Tolerances

Once a satisfactory design has been achieved, the optical element must be fabricated. The fabrication process determines the final shape and cosmetics of the surfaces. Surface figure specifications of an…read more

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MTF Evaluation

MTF Evaluation

Up to this point, this discussion has considered the performance of the optical system only in terms of image location. Another factor is the resolution of a system, normally specified…read more

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Third Order Seidel Aberrations

Third-Order Seidel Aberrations

The derivations of the previous equations for the object, image and focal distances assumed n1θ1 = n2θ2. However, Snell’s Law is exact; the inclusion of higher orders of the sine…read more

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Theories And Formulas Screen Shot

Theories & Formulas

Sign Conventions Before proceeding with the methods of analysis for an imaging system, a few sign conventions must be established. The first is that light travels from left to right….read more

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Index of Refraction

Index of Refraction

In a vacuum, light travels at a velocity of c = 2.998 × 108m/sec; in more dense media, the velocity of light is lower. The index of refraction of a…read more

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Common Symbols Abbreviations

Common Symbols & Abbreviations

A Distance from front edge of lens to front focal point BF Back focal length C.A. Clear aperture CT Center…

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